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湿地水鸟

       我国湿地鸟类资源丰富,据湿地调查统计,我国共有湿地水鸟 12 目 32 科 271 种,主要由鹤类、鹭类、雁鸭类 、鸻鹬类、鸥类、鹳类等组成,此外尚有少量猛禽和鸣禽,其中有许多珍稀濒危物种。被列为国家重点保护的湿地鸟类共 10 目18 科 56 种。其中,国家一级重点保护的有 12 种,被列为国家二级重点保护的共 44 种在亚洲 57 种濒危鸟类中,中国湿地内就有 31种,占 54%;全世界雁鸭类有 166 种,中国湿地有50种,占 30%;全世界鹤类有 15 种,中国记录到 9 种,占 60%;此外,还有许多属于跨国迁徙的鸟类。

       湿地鸟类是湿地野生动物中最具有代表性的类群。根据居留型可分为夏候鸟、冬候鸟、留鸟和旅鸟 4 类。我国北方的寒温带和温带以夏候鸟和旅鸟占优势,南方的亚热带和热带,以冬候鸟和留鸟为主。很多迁徙鸟在北方繁殖,到南方越冬。

一、什么是湿地水鸟

       湿地水鸟是指在生态上依赖于湿地,即某一生活史阶段依赖于湿地,且在形态和行为上对湿地形成适应特征的鸟类。它们以湿地为栖息空间,依水而居,或在水中游泳和潜水,或在浅水、滩地与岸边涉行,或在其上空飞行,以各种特化的喙和独特的方式在湿地觅食。无论它们在湿地停留的时间是长还是短,是日栖还是夜宿,是嬉戏还是觅食与筑巢,湿地水鸟在喙、腿、脚、羽毛、体形和行为方式等方面均会显示出其相应的长期适应的特征。

       湿地水鸟包括了潜鸟目、目、鹳形目、红鹳目、雁形目和鸻形目(海雀除外)的所有种类,以及鹈形目、鹤形目和佛法僧目的部分种类。有学者认为湿地水鸟还应包括海鸟,但鹱形目、鹈形目的鹲、鲣鸟、军舰鸟和鸻形目的海雀、贼鸥等属远洋性海鸟,它们的生活史主要在海洋及其远洋岛屿上完成,基本上不依赖于湿地,故也有学者认为远洋性海鸟不应列入湿地水鸟之范畴。此外, 与湿地关系密切、 经常栖息于湿地的鸟类还有隼形目、 鹃形目、鸮形目、形目和雀形目的许多种类。因此,将依赖于湿地和经常栖息于湿地的鸟类一并统称为湿地鸟类。

二、中国主要湿地水鸟

          湿地鸟类是湿地野生动物中最具代表性的类群,是湿地生态系统的重要组成部分,灵敏和深刻地反映着湿地环境的变迁。

          据统计,目前我国有湿地水鸟12目32科271种,其中属国家重点保护的水鸟有10目18科56种,属国家保护的有益或者有重要经济、科学研究价值的水鸟有10目25科195种。按居留型可分为夏候鸟、冬候鸟、留鸟和旅鸟4类,其中大部分是候鸟和旅鸟。在亚洲57种濒危鸟类中,中国湿地内就有31种,占54%;全世界鹤类有15种,中国有记录的就有9种,占60%;全世界雁鸭类有166种,中国湿地就有50种,占30%。

我国湿地水鸟的分布是与各地的气候、水文、植被等自然地理特点相适应的。北方处于寒温带和温带,种类以夏候鸟和旅鸟占优势;南方处于亚热带和热带,种类以冬候鸟和留鸟占优势。很多水鸟都是在北方繁殖,到南方越冬。

中国主要水鸟名录


中文名学名英文名
潜鸟目 GAVIIFORMES
潜鸟科 Gaviidae (4)
1红喉潜鸟 Gavia stellataRed-throated Diver
2太平洋潜鸟Gavia   pacificaPacific Diver
3黑喉潜鸟Gavia arcticaBlack-throated   Diver
4白嘴潜鸟Gavia adamsiiWhite-billed Diver
目   PODICIPEDIFORMES
科 Podicipedidae (5)
5小Tachybaptus   ruficollisLittle Grebe
6角Podiceps auritusHorned Grebe
7黑颈Podiceps nigricollisBlack-necked Grebe
8凤头Podiceps cristatusGreat CrestedGrebe
9赤颈Podiceps   grisegenaRed-necked Grebe
鹱形目 PROCELLARIIFORMES
信天翁科   Diomedeidae(2)
10短尾信天翁Diomedea albatrusShort-tailedAlbatross
11黑脚信天翁Diomedea nigripesBlack-footed Albatross
鹱科   Procellariidae(8)
12暴风鹱Fulmarus glacialisPacific Fulmar
13白额鹱Puffinus leucomelasWhite-frontedShearwater
14曳尾鹱Puffinus pacificusWedge-tailed Shearwater
15灰鹱Puffinus   griseusGrey Shearwater
16短尾鹱Puffinus tenuirostrisShort-tailedShearwater
17钩嘴圆尾鹱Pterodroma rostrataT ahiti    Petrel
18点额圆尾鹱Pterodroma hypoleucaBonin Petrel
19纯褐鹱Bulweria bulweriiBulwer's Petrel
海燕科 Hydrobatidae(2)
20白腰叉尾海燕Oceanodroma leucorhoaFork-tailed Storm Petrel
21黑叉尾海燕Oceanodroma monorhisSwinhoe's Storm Petrel
鹈形目   PELACANIFORMES
鸏科 Phaethontidae(3)
22短尾鸏Phaethon aethereusShort-tailed Tropic-bird
23红尾鸏Phaethon rubricaudaRed-tailed   Tropic-bird
24白尾鸏Phaethon lepturusLong-tailed Tropic-bird
鹈鹕科 Pelecanidae (2)
25白鹈鹕Pelecanus onocrotalusEastern White   Pelican
26斑嘴鹈鹕Pelecanus philippensisSpot-billed Pelican
鲣鸟科   Sulidae(2)
27红脚鲣鸟Sula sulaRed-footed Booby
28褐鲣鸟Sula   leucogasterBrown Booby
鸬鹚科 Phalacrocoracidae (5)
29[普通]鸬鹚Phalacrocorax carboCommon Cormorant
30斑头(绿)鸬鹚Phalacrocorax   capillatusTemminck's Cormorant
31海鸬鹚Phalacrocorax   pelagicusSea Cormorant
32红脸鸬鹚Phalacrocorax urileRed-faced Cormorant
33黑颈鸬鹚Phalacrocorax nigerLittle Cormorant
军舰鸟科 Fregatidae(3)
34小军舰鸟Fregata minorLesser Frigate Bird
35白腹军舰鸟Fregata andrwsiChristmas Island Frigate Bird
36白斑军舰鸟Fregata arielLeast Frigate Bird
鹳形目 CICONIIFORMES
鹭科   Ardeidae (21)
37苍鹭Ardea cinereaGrey Heron
38草鹭Ardea   purpureaPurple Heron
39绿鹭Butorides striatusLittle Green   Heron
40池鹭Ardeola bacchusChinese Pond Heron
41牛背鹭Bubulcus ibisCattle Egret
42白颈黑鹭Egretta picataPied   Heron
43大白鹭Egretta albaLarge Egret
44白鹭Egretta   garzettaLittle Egret
45黄嘴白鹭Egretta eulophotesChinese   Egret
46岩鹭Egretta sacraReef Heron
47中白鹭Egretta   intermediaIntermediate Egret
48夜鹭Nycticorax nycticoraxBlack-crowned Night Heron
49栗头虎斑鳽Gorsachius goisagiBrown Night   Heron
50海南虎斑鳽Gorsachius magnificusChinese Night Heron
51黑冠虎斑鳽Gorsachius melanolophusMalay Night Heron
52小苇鳽Ixobrychus minutusLittle Bittern
53黄苇鳽Ixobrychus   sinensisYellow Bittern
54紫背苇鳽Ixobrychus eurhythmusSchrenck's Bittern
55栗苇鳽Ixobrychus cinnamomeusCinnamon Bittern
56黑鳽Ixobrychus flavicollisBlack Bittern
57大麻鳽Botaurus   stellarisGreat Bittern
鹳科 Ciconiidae (5)
58彩鹳Mycteria   leucocephalusPainted Stork
59白鹳Ciconia ciconiaWhite   Stork
60东方白鹳Ciconia boycianaOriental White Stork
61黑鹳Ciconia nigraBlack Stork
62秃鹳Leptoptilos javanicusLesser Adjutant Stork
鹮科 Threskiornithidae (6)
63[黑头]白鹮Threskiornis melanocephalusWhite Ibis
64黑鹮Pseudibis   papillosaBlack Ibis
65朱鹮Nipponia nipponCrested Ibis
66彩鹮Plegadis falcinellaGlossy Ibis
67白琵鹭Platalea   leucorodiaWhite Spoonbill
68黑脸琵鹭Platalea minorBlack-faced Spoonbill
雁形目ANSERIFORMES
鸭科 Anatidae (47)
69黑雁Branta berniclaBrant Goose
70红胸黑雁Branta ruficollisRed-breasted Goose
71鸿雁Anser cygnoidesSwan Goose
72豆雁Anser fabalisBean Goose
73白额雁 Anser albifronsWhite-fronted Goose
74小白额雁Anser erythropusLesser White-fronted   Goose
75灰雁Anser anserGreylag Goose
76斑头雁Anser   indicusBar-headed Goose
77雪雁Anser caerulescensSnow   Goose
78大天鹅Cygnus cygnusWhooper Swan
79小天鹅Cygnus   columbianusWhistling Swan
80疣鼻天鹅Cygnus olorMute Swan
81[栗]树鸭Dendrocygna javanicaLesser Whistling Teal
82赤麻鸭Tadorna ferrugineaRuddy Shelduck
83翘鼻麻鸭Tadorna   tadornaCommon Shelduck
84针尾鸭Anas acutaPintail
85绿翅鸭Anas creccaCommon Teal
86花脸鸭Anas formosaBaikal Teal
87罗纹鸭Anas falcataFalcated Teal
88绿头鸭Anas   platyrhynchosMallard
89斑嘴鸭Anas poecilorhynchaSpotbill   Duck
90赤膀鸭Anas streperaGadwall
91赤颈鸭Anas   penelopeWigeon
92白眉鸭Anas querquedulaGarganey
93琵嘴鸭Anas clypeataShoveller
94云石斑鸭Marmaronetta   angustirostrisMarbled Teal
95赤嘴潜鸭Netta rufinaRed-crested Pochard
96帆背潜鸭Aythya valisineriaCanvasback
97红头潜鸭Aythya ferinaCommon Pochard
98白眼潜鸭Aythya   nyrocaWhite-eyed Pochard
99青头潜鸭Aythya baeriBaer's   Pochard
100凤头潜鸭Aythya fuligulaTufted Duck
101斑背潜鸭Aythya marilaScaup Duck
102鸳鸯Aix galericulataMandarin Duck
103棉凫Nettapus coromandelianusCotton Teal
104瘤鸭Sarkidiornis melanotosComb Duck
105小绒鸭Polysticta   stelleriSteller's Eider
106黑海番鸭Melanitta nigraBlack   Scoter
107斑脸海番鸭Melanitta fuscaWhite-winged Scoter
108丑鸭Histrionicus histrionicusHarlequin Duck
109长尾鸭Clangula   hyemalisLong-tailed Duck
110鹊鸭Bucephala clangulaGoldeneye
111白头硬尾鸭Oxyura leucocephalaWhite-headed Duck
112斑头秋沙鸭Mergus albellusSmew
113中华秋沙鸭Mergus   squamatusChinese Merganser
114红胸秋沙鸭Mergus serratorRed-breastedMerganser
115普通秋沙鸭Mergus merganserGoosander
隼形目FALCONIFORMES
鹰科Accipitridat(1)
116Pandion haliatusOsprey
鹤形目GRUIFORMES
鹤科Gruidae (9)
117灰鹤Grus grusCommon   Crane
118黑颈鹤Grus nigricollisBlack-necked Crane
119白头鹤Grus monachaHooded Crane
120沙丘鹤Grus canadensisShandhill Crane
121丹顶鹤Grus japonensisRed-crowned Crane
122白枕鹤Grus vipioWhite-naped Crane
123白鹤GrusleucogeranusSiberian White Crane
124赤颈鹤Grus   antigoneSarus Crane
125蓑羽鹤Anthropoides virgoDemoiselle   Crane
秧鸡科Rallidae (19)
126普通秧鸡Rallus aquaticusWater Rail
127蓝胸秧鸡Rallus striatusBlue-breasted Banded Rail
128红腿斑秧鸡Rallina fasciataRed-legged Crake
129白喉斑秧鸡Rallina   eurizonoidesBanded Crake
130长脚秧鸡Crex crexCorn Crake
131白眉秧鸡Porzana cinereaAshy Crake
132姬田鸡Porzana   parvaLittle Crake
133小田鸡Porzana pusillaBaillon's Crake
134斑胸田鸡Porzana porzanaSpotted Crake
135红胸田鸡Porzana   fuscaRuddy Crake
136斑胁田鸡Porzana paykulliiBand-beilied   Crake
137棕背田鸡Porzana bicolorRufous-backed Crake
138花田鸡Porzana exquisitaSwinhoe's Yellow Rail
139红脚苦恶鸟Amaurornis   akoolBrown Crake
140白胸苦恶鸟Amaurornis phoenicurusWhite-breasted WaterHen
141董鸡Gallicrex cinereaWater Cock
142黑水鸡Gallinula chloropusMoorhen
143紫水鸡Porphyrio   porphyrioPurple Moorhen
144白骨顶Fulica atraCoot
鸻形目   CHARADRIIFORMES
雉鸻科 Jacanidae (2)
145铜翅水雉Metapidius indicusBronge-winged Jacana
146水雉Hydrophasianus chirurgusPheasant-tailed Jacana
彩鹬科 Rostratulidae (1)
147彩鹬Rostratula   benghalensisPainted Snipe
蛎鹬科 Haematopodidae (1)
148蛎鹬Haematopus ostralegusOystercatcher
鸻科 Charadriidae (15)
149凤头麦鸡Vanellus vanellusLapwing
150灰头麦鸡Vanellus   cinereusGrey-headed Lapwing
151肉垂麦鸡Vanellus indicusRed-wattledLapwing
152距翅麦鸡Vanellus duvauceliiSpur-winged   Lapwing
153灰斑鸻Pluvialis squatarolaGrey Plover
154金[斑]鸻Pluvialis dominicaEastern Golden Plover
155剑鸻Charadrius   hiaticulaRinged Plover
156长嘴剑鸻Charadrius placidusLong-billed Ringed Plover
157金眶鸻Charadrius dubiusLittle Ringed   Plover
158环颈鸻Charadrius alexandrinusKentish Plover
159蒙古沙鸻Charadrius mongolusMongolian Plover
160铁嘴沙鸻Charadrius   leschenaultiiLarge Sand Plover
161红胸鸻Charadrius   asiaticusCaspian Plover
162东方鸻Charadrius veredusEastern   Sand Plover
163小嘴鸻Eudromias morinellusDotterel
鹬科   Scolopacidae (48)
164小杓鹬Numenius minutusLittle Whimbrel
165中杓鹬Numenius phaeopusWhimbrel  
166白腰杓鹬Numenius   arquataCurlew
167红腰杓鹬Numenius madagascariensisRed-rumped Curlew
168黑尾塍鹬Limosa limosaBlack-tailed Godwit
169斑尾塍鹬Limosa lapponicaBar-tailed Godwit
170红脚鹤鹬Tringa   erythropusSpotted Redshank
171红脚鹬Tringa totanusRedshank
172泽鹬Tringa stagnatilisMarsh Sandpiper
173青脚鹬Tringa   nebulariaGreenshank
174白腰草鹬Tringa ochropusGreen   Sandpiper
175林鹬Tringa glareolaWood Sandpiper
176小青脚鹬Tring a guttifer Armstrong's Sandpiper
177小黄脚鹬Tringa   flavipesLesser Yellowlegs
178灰鹬Tringa incanaGrey   Sandpiper
179矶鹬Tringa hypoleucosCommon Sandpiper
180灰尾漂鹬Heteroscelus brevipesGrey-rumped Sandpiper
181漂鹬Heteroscelus incanusGery Sandpiper
182翘嘴鹬Xenus   cinereusTerek Sandpiper
183翻石鹬Arenaria interpres  Turnstone
184长嘴鹬Limnodromus scolopaceusLong-billed Dowitcher
185半蹼鹬Limnodromus semipalmatusSnipe-billed Godwit
186孤沙锥Gallinago   solitariaSolitary Snipe
187澳南沙锥Gallinago hardwickiiLatham's Snipe
188林沙锥Gallinago nemoricolaWood Snipe  
189针尾沙锥Gallinago stenuraPintail Snipe
190大沙锥Gallinago   megalaSwinhoe's Snipe
191扇尾沙锥Gallinago gallinagoFantail   Snipe
192丘鹬Scolopax rusticolaWoodcock
193姬鹬Lymnocryptes minimusJack Snipe
194红腹滨鹬Calidris   canutusRed Knot
195大滨鹬Calidris tenuirostrisGreat Knot
196红胸滨鹬Calidris ruficollisRed-necked Stint
197西方滨鹬Calidris mauriWestern Sandpiper
198长趾滨鹬Calidris   subminutaLong-toed Stint
199小滨鹬Calidris minutaLittle   Stint
200乌脚滨鹬Calidris temminckiiTemminck's Stint
201尖尾滨鹬Calidris acuminataSharp-tailed Stint
202岩滨鹬Calidris   ptilocnemisRock Sand-piper
203黑腹滨鹬Calidris alpinaDunlin
204弯嘴滨鹬Calidris ferrugineaCurlew Stint
205斑胸滨鹬Calidris   melanotosPectoral Sandpiper
206三趾滨鹬Crocethia albaSanderling
207勺嘴鹬Eurynorhynchus pygmeusSpoon-billedSandpiper
208阔嘴鹬Limicola falcinellusBroad-billed Sandpiper
209高跷鹬Micropalama himantopusStilt Sandpiper
210黄胸鹬Tryngites   subruficillisBuff-breastedSandpiper
211流苏鹬Philomachus   pugnaxRuff
反嘴鹬科 Recurvirostridae (3)  
212鹮嘴鹬Ibidorhyncha   struthersiiIbis-bill
213黑翅长脚鹬Himantopus himantopusBlack-winged Stint
214反嘴鹬Recurvirostra avosettaPied Avocet
瓣蹼鹬科Phalaropodidae (2)
215红颈瓣蹼鹬Phalaropus lobatusRed-necked   Phalarope
216灰瓣蹼鹬Phalaropus fulicariusGrey Phalarope
石鸻科Burhinidae (2)
217大石鸻Esacus magnirostrisGreat Stone   Plover
218石鸻Burhinus oedicnemusStone Curlew
燕鸻科 Glareolidae   (2)
219普通燕鸻Glareola maldivarumOriental Pratincole
220灰燕鸻Glareola lacteaSmall Pratincole
鸥形目LARIFORMES
贼鸥科   Stercorariidae (4)
221中贼鸥Stercorarius pomarinusPomatorhine Skua
222大贼鸥Catharacta skuaGreat Skua
223短尾贼鸥Stercorarius   parasiticusShort-tailed Skua
224长尾贼鸥Stercorarius   longicaudusLong-tailed Skua
鸥科 Laridae (33)
225黑尾鸥Larus   crassirostrisBlack-tailed Gull
226海鸥Larus canusCommon   Gull
227银鸥Larus argentatusHerring Gull
228灰背鸥Larus   schistisagusSlaty-backed Gull
229灰翅鸥Larus glaucescensGlaucous-winged Gull
230北极鸥Larus hyperboreusGlaucous Gull
231渔鸥Larus ichthyaetusGreat Black-headed Gull
232遗鸥Larus relictusRelict Gull
233红嘴鸥Larus ridibundusBlack-headed Gull
234棕头鸥Larus brunnicephalusBrown-headed Gull
235细嘴鸥Larus geneiSlender-billed Gull
236小鸥Larus minutusLittle Gull
237黑嘴鸥Larus saundersiSaunder's Gull
238三趾鸥Rissa tridactylaBlacked-leggedKittiwake
239楔尾鸥Rhodostethia   roseaWedge-tailed Gull
240须浮鸥Chlidonias hybridaWhiskered Tern
241白翅浮鸥Chlidonias leucopteraWhite-winged Black   Tern
242黑浮鸥Chlidonias nigerBlack Tern
243鸥嘴噪鸥Gelochelidon niloticaGull-billed Tern
244红嘴巨鸥Hydroprogne   caspiaCaspian Tern
245黄嘴河燕鸥Sterna aurantiaRiver Tern
246普通燕鸥Sterna hirundoCommon Tern
247粉红燕鸥Sterna   dougalliiRoseate Tern
248黑枕燕鸥Sterna sumatranaBlack-naped Tern
249黑腹燕鸥Sterna melanogasterBlack-bellied Tern
250褐翅燕鸥Sterna anaethetusBrown-winged Tern
251乌燕鸥Sterna   fuscataSooty Tern
252白额燕鸥Sterna albifronsLittle Tern
253大凤头燕鸥Thalasseus bergiiLarge Crested Tern
254小凤头燕鸥Thalasseus bengalensisLittle Crested Tern
255黑嘴端凤头燕鸥Thalasseus bernsteiniChinese Lesser Crested Tern
256白顶黑燕鸥Anous stolidusCommon Noddy
257白燕鸥Gygis albaWhite   Tern
剪嘴鸥科Rynchopidae (1)
258剪嘴鸥Rhynchops albicollisIndian   Skimmer
海雀科Alcidae(4)
259扁嘴海雀Synthiboramphus antiquusAncient Murrelet
260斑海雀Brachyramphus marmoratusMarbled Murrelet
261角嘴海雀Cerorhinca monocerataHornbilled Auklet
262冠海雀Synthliboraphus antiqusCrested Murrelet
鴞形目STRIGIFORMES
鸱鴞科   Strigidae(3)
263毛腿渔鴞Ketupa blakistoniBlackiston's Fish Owl
264褐渔鴞Ketupa zeylonensisBrown Fish Owl
265黄脚渔鴞Ketupa   flavipesTawny Fish Owl
佛法僧目CORACIIFORMES
翠鸟科 Aleedinidae(6)
266冠鱼狗Ceryle lugubrusCrested PiedKingfisher
267斑鱼狗Ceryle rudisLesser Pied Kingfisher
268普通翠鸟Alcedo   atthisCommon Kingfisher
269赤翡翠Halcyon coromandaRuddy   Kingfisher
270白胸翡翠Halcyon smyrnensisWhite-breasted Kingfisher
271篮翡翠Halcyon pileataBlack-capped Kingfisher


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